Historical Information about Ambika Kalna, Burdwan.
The town of Kalna is 60 kilometers from Bardhaman. Kalna is located at 23 deg;13’N to 88 deg;22’E. It has an average elevation of 11 meters from the sea level. The town can easily be accessed by rail or roadways. It is connected from Howrah towards Katwa. AmbikaKalna, 81 kilometers from Howrah, is the main railway station. There are several local trains as well as express trains on the route and almost all of them stop at the AmbikaKalna rail station. By road, the town can be accessed from primarily 4 places, Bandel, Pandua, Bianchi, and Barddhaman. Kalna is situated on the agriculturally rich alluvial soil between the Bhagirathi, Ajay River, and Damodar River.
The town Kalna is the headquarter of the Kalna Subdivision. This town is situated in the South Eastern Part of the District Burdwan, in the State of West Bengal. It is surrounded by the Ganges in the North, Kalyanpur Gram Panchayet in South, Santgachiya Gram Panchayet in East, and Hatkalna Gram Panchayet in West. Its distance from Kolkata is about 83 km. Distance from district headquarters is near about 60 km. Other important towns like Santipur and Nabadwip of the District Nadia are very adjacent to this town, Santipur is within the reach of the only 10km. and the distance of Nabadwip town is only 24 km. The town Kalna is well linked with the State capital Kolkata both by railway and road connections. A good number of important State roads passing through the town. Among the following are very much important. Kalna- Bardhaman Road, Kalna – Baidyapur Road, Kalna – Bandel Road, Kalna – Santipur Road, Kalna – Katwa Road.
The town Kalna, popularly termed as Ambika Kalna has a very rich and old historical background. It’s a small unit of larger multi-dimensional background in Indian History. Kalna is not only a piece of man’s land, but it is also an all-powerful vessel of maternity consisting of different categories of people ranging from survivors of primitive men and women, several communities castes and races.
During the reign of Shashanka in the 7th century, a hyper naval-base was founded at Kalna. While LakshmanSen was the ruler of Saptagram, Murari Sharma was supposed to rule over Kalna in the period of Hindu rulers. Ikhtiyaruddin Bin Baktiyarlalji passed one night in the guise of a horse merchant and had a start from Kalna to invade Nadia and ultimately won over it in 1204 A.D.It is revealed from the above-mentioned information that from the very oldest age i,e from the very beginning of pre-historic age, Kalna had been reputed as a recognized, dignified habitable area.
From the sources of ancient manuscripts, chronicles, and MangalKavya, it is vivid that this town was entitled as Ambika, Amuya, ambua etc. So many learned men and well-wishers have converted the name Kalna Court into Ambika Kalna after their hardest revolt and strong demand. They submitted the logic – Ambika is ancient and Kalna is younger. Ambika is the ancient wakeful goddess of Kalna. The name Kalna does not trace out any historical or archaeological significance. Kalna is a Portuguese term. It means Thana. Probably when founded their residence at Kalna, SashiBhushan Banerjee and others changed the name of Kalna station from Kalna Court to Ambika Kalna. But the above-mentioned statement are disputable. In Dravida – ‘Kal’ means river bank and ‘ona’ means a place situated beside the river.
Existence of the town had yet been found during the Pal dynasty which is at least 1000 years old one. Manipal, the Great Hindu King of Pal dynasty in Bengal had established one of his administrative infrastructures in the town Kalna. The area where such accumulation of administrators and traders had occurred was thin termed as “Nripapalli”. Still today there is one area alive in the town and hears the old name “Nripapally”. After that the town Kalna had again been enlighted in the history during the period of GourangaMahaprabhu, popularly known as ShriChaitanyaDev, the great social as well as a religious reformer in the made the 16th Century of Indian History.
During Chaitanya jug, i.e. Chaitanya era, Kalna town experienced may historical waves. For betterment Baisnaba influence, even the king of Gour, HusenShaha, another great admirer of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, visited this town and constructed many religious establishments and temples.Apart from Baisnaba influence, Kalna was also very much rich in Muslim culture also. During Mughal Dynasty this town achieves some ornaments of Mughal influences. The town also was used as a good port as it is situated on the bank of river “Bhagirathi”.
As of the 2001 India census, Kalna had a population of 52,176. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Kalna has an average literacy rate of 84.4%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 90.1%, and female literacy is 78.4%. In Kalna, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The steady flow of refugees from East Pakistan swelled the population of the area in the fifties.
Source: Census 2011
|Ward||No of Households||Total Population||Total Population Male||Total Population Female|
Being located just north of the tropic of Cancer the area experiences severe climate variations throughout the year. In winter the temperature often falls below 70 C whereas in the summer it crosses 400 C. The avg. temperature ranges between 200 C to 300 C. The general wind direction is from South, South – West. The rainy season is between June to September when the area usually experiences heavy downpour.
To the west of Kalna police station, the parts of Khari, Banka, Gangur, and Behula flows. So this part of soil consists with less quantity of clay or silt and thus this part has limited capacity to hold water. But Purbasthali, Manteswar and eastern part of Kalna is constructed with fine silts. A little quantity of rain pour is enough for well cultivation. Just to the South-East of district Bardhaman, Kalna sub divisional area is situated. To the North there exists Katwa sub divisional town, to the West there exists Bardhaman, Memarietc, To the West the rivers “Bhagirathi, Shantipur, Krishnanagar, and to the South there are Balagarh, and Pandua under the district of Hooghly. The weather is mainly influenced by the ‘Monsoon’. Average rainfall varies from 150 to 200 cm. Kalna has 88o 20’ East longitude and 23o 12’ 25’’ North latitude.The soil is rich with deposition of alluvium of the Bhagirathi and Behula. It is partly laterite clay and partly red color coarse grained sand. Soil erosion is quite predominant.
Through several flows the communication and link among various interior gangs like NandanGhat, Manteswar were well kept. Still S.D.O. office of Kalna subdivision exists just beside the river. The distance villages Faleya, Nimdaha, Nadanghat, Mahmudpur, Baghnapara are still depending on the naval way.
Even after setting on railways conveyance, two water conveyance associations: i) Steam navigation company ii) Horemiller company found themselves busy for the transportation of people and goods. Starting from Hatkhola of Kolkata, Naval transportation was practiced to reach Kalna via Uttarpara, Sreerampur, Sheorafuli, Nababganj, Bhadreshwar, Chandannagar, Bhatpara, Chinsura, Hooghly, Bansbaria, Tribani, Kaliganj, Jirat, Somra, Shantipur, Guptipara, etc.
As two roadways Kalna was certainly linked with the administrative centers – Saptagram, Pandua, Nabadwip.
Kalna is a Sub – Divisional town. Kalna Municipality had been established in the year 1869. At present the Municipality is administrated by a Board of Elected Commissioners. There is Chairman in the Municipality. In this town, there are offices of the Sub-Divisional officer, a Sub-Divisional Court. Tehsil Office, Taluka Office, Block Office and many other Sub-Divisional Offices situated in the town. Area of Kalna Sub division – 385.01 sq. km. total number of village – 714, number of mouza -549, number of gram panchayat – 49, number of police station – 3, (Purbasthali, Manteswar, and Kalna), total number of block – 5, panchayetsamity – 5, number of population of the sub division – 653844, number of female – 321786, number of male – 332058, number of literate male(up to 1981) – 228774, number of literate female (up to 1981) – 184659, total number of male and female literate – 413433.
|Number of Block||2|
|Number of Mouza||215|
|Total number of villages||371|
|Total number of population||225513|
|Kalna block I||Kalna block II|
|Number of population||121080||Number of population||104433|
|Number of Mouza||102||Number of Mouza||113|
|Number of villages||177||Number of villages||167|
|Gram panchayet||9||Gram panchayet||8|
|Manteswar Thana||Purbasthali Thana|
|Number of Block||1||Number of Block||2|
|Number of population||192969||Number of population||186823|
|Number of Mouza||144||Number of Mouza||190|
|Number of villages||151||Number of villages||219|
|Gram panchayet||13||Gram panchayet||17|
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